Minutes of the Annual Meeting
Project Number: NC-140
Project Title: Rootstock and Interstem Effects on Pome- and Stone-fruit Trees
Period Covered: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2001
Date: November 11-12, 2001
Presiding: Dr. Scott Johnson, University of California
Meeting convened: November 11, 8:15 AM
Scott Johnson welcomed the group and presented the agenda.
Motion: A motion was made by Dave Ferree and seconded by Paul Domoto to adopt the agenda as presented. Motion passed unanimously.
Motion: A motion was made by Gene Mielke and seconded by Paul Domoto to accept the minutes as amended. Motion passed unanimously.
Future meeting sites
2002 – November 11-13 – Egg Harbor, Wisconsin – Teryl Roper host and chair
2003 – Nova Scotia– Charlie Embree host, Wes Autio chair
2004 – South Carolina – Greg Reighard host and chair
2005 – Indiana – Peter Hirst host and chair
Report form the Administrative Advisor
Dr. Gray complemented the group on its quality of cooperative effort. He emphasized the importance of the minutes and the accomplishment report, particularly relative to the rewrite of the project proposal. He suggested that we emphasize the outreach/extension component of our proposal.
Dr. Gray suggested that many budgets may be stressed this year. Federal IFAFS and NRI may increase some. IFAFS may be a source of funds for rootstock/applied research. He predicts enhanced emphasis on IFAFS because of the interaction of outreach, research, and stakeholders.
The NC-140 2002-2007 Project proposal will need to be reviewed by two outside scientists.
Dr. Gray will present the NC-140 Project to USDA to be considered for recognition.
Autio presented the draft and much discussion ensued. Individuals will submit recommendations during the meeting for review by the Committee. Changes will be made during the middle two weeks of November and emailed to cooperators for a final review in the last week of November. The final draft will be emailed to the administrative advisor in early December.
1988 Pear – Mielke discussed information lacking from cooperators, particularly reasons for tree death. Inclusion of this information will allow completion of the manuscript.
1990 Plum – Andersen has not yet completed the process of compiling the data from this trial, but he will progress toward publication as soon as possible.
1990 Gala Rootstock and Systems – Marini reported that both plantings have been summarized and publications will appear in the October issue of the J. Amer. Pom. Soc. Marini prepared two additional manuscripts regarding experimental design from data collected in these trials. He asked the questions of whether or not blocking is necessary and whether or not multiple individuals should appear within a replication. The second manuscript addressed the question of the effects of crop load on fruit size and how to handle it statistically. Manuscripts are ready to be submitted for review. These likely will be submitted to HortScience. Marini will invoice cooperators to help pay for page charges. Additionally, Barden is summarizing the data for tree weight.
1990 Cultivar/Rootstock – Autio reported that the trial was terminated and seven papers were published in July in the J. Amer. Pom. Soc.
1992/93 Geneva Rootstock – Robinson reported that the 1992 trial was terminated, and the 1993 trial will be terminated this fall. Deadline is March 31, 2002 for data submission.
1994 Dwarf Apple – Marini noted that some data are still missing. He emphasized that the data need to be proofed before submission. Data format will be similar to previous years for this year and next. Tree survival is varies with location and rootstock. Survival is good at BC, NJ, NY-Highland, ONT, PA-Biglerville, PA-Rocksprings, WA, and WI, but tree mortality is high at GA, NC, SC, and TN. Rootstocks with high survival include V.1, B.491, and B.9, but rootstocks with poor survival include Mark, M.9 EMLA, and O.3. There is a strong location x rootstock interaction for every response variable. However, at most locations, the largest trees are on M.26 EMLA and V.1. At some locations, M.9 RN29 and M.9 Pajam 2 also produced large trees. M.27 EMLA and P.22 produced the smallest trees at most locations. Indices related to yield cannot be evaluated with one year's data, because some locations are in alternate bearing patterns.
1994 Semidwarf Apple – Marini noted that the data problems and data collection process are similar to the 1994 Dwarf Apple Trial. Little additional tree loss was reported in 2000. Tree mortality is greatest on G.30 and M.26 EMLA and relatively low for P.1 and V.2. The interaction between location and rootstock is extreme. At 10 of the 19 locations rootstock did not significantly influence TCSA. Locations with the largest trees include NJ, TN, and VA. At locations where rootstock is significant, the smaller trees were on V.2 and G.30. Response variables related to yield are difficult to interpret from a single year's data, because there seems to be extreme alternate bearing at some locations. Yield was significantly affected by rootstock at only 5 of the 19 locations. For those locations, G.30 tended to have the highest yields.
1994 Peach – Reighard reported that the 5-year results were published in Acta Hort. A manuscript will be prepared for Compact Fruit Tree. It was agreed that the trial will be terminated in 2001. Reighard will prepare a revised protocol for distribution. Some sites may choose to keep the planting, and Reighard will coordinate further research within the remaining trials. Data submission was requested by February 1, 2002. Reighard appealed for timely data submission.
1998 Eastern Sweet, Western Sweet, and Tart Cherry – Lang reported that there have been very good yield data, and rootstock differences are developing.
1998 Apple – Robinson distributed 2001 and 2002 protocols. Tree height and width need to be measured in 2002. Sites with Gala will terminate the planting after the 2002 growing season. Jonagold trials will be maintained for another five years.
1999 Dwarf Apple – Autio distributed protocols for data collection in 2002 and submission in 2001. Some discussion occurred regarding cold damage on trees in shipment and some misidentified trees. Autio reported that there was a significant interaction of rootstock and location; however, generally the largest trees were on CG.4013, and the smallest were on M.9 NAKBT337. Greatest yields were hrvested from Supporter 1 (Fuji) and Supporter 3 (McIntosh) where rootstock differences existed.
1999 Semidwarf Apple – Autio distributed protocols for data collection in 2002 and submission in 2001. It was agreed that we will allow temporary (3-years) trunk support for the semidwarf trial at sites where needed. For Fuji, largest trees were on G.30N, and for McIntosh they were on Supporter 4. Trees on M.7 EMLA yielded the most in 2000.
2001 Peach – Reighard distributed protocols for data collection and submission. He reported some problems with tree loss related to tree propagation. Rooting occurred only at the base of the hardwood/semihardwood cuttings. Newly planted finished trees were moved in moderate wind and this tore roots from these rootstock shanks. Much discussion ensued regarding the quality of trees received. Many trees were very weak. Data are to be submitted by February 1, 2002.
2002 Peach – A new peach rootstock planting will be established in 2002 in 16 to 18 sites. Eight sites will have Cresthaven as the scion and 8 to 10 sites will have Redhaven. There will be eight single-tree replications of each rootstock at each site. All sites will include eight rootstock selections including VVA-1, Pumiselect, Cadaman, Lovell (repeats from 2001 planting), Adesoto 101, MRS 2/5, Penta and VSV-1. Two other rootstocks will be included as border trees in some of the plantings but will not be evaluated officially. These are K146-43 which grew poorly in the nursery and Monegro which never grew large enough to bud. Johnson distributed a list of rootstocks and cooperators.
2002 Apple – A number of Buckeye Gala trees were finished, but there is not enough for as large a trial as originally planned. It was decided that five rootstocks (B.9Treco, B.9Europe, M.9Burgmer 756, M.9 RN29, and B.9 NAKBT337) will be included in a trial with four replications with two trees of each rootstock within each replication. Eight locations (MA, IL, BC, MI, NY, NJ, IN, PA) will be included. Additional finished trees will be distributed to cooperators interested in them. Autio will coordinate this trial.
2002 Pear – Mielke reported that there will be eight rootstocks in this trial. Planting sites will be located in the Wenatchee area, Yakima area, Okanagan area, Hood River area, and Kearneysville, WV. Cultivars will include Bartlett and Bosc. Mielke will coordinate this trial
2003 Apple – Robinson reported that twenty-two rootstocks will be included at approximately 20 sites. Some trees will be in short supply. A sign-up sheet was circulated. Marini will coordinate this trial
2004 Pear – Mielke reported that this trial will include three California and two New York sites with the eight rootstocks used in 2002 plus eight additional stocks. The eight additional stocks also will be planted at the sites used in the 2002. Mielke will coordinate this trial.
2004 Tart Cherry – Lang discussed the potential rootstocks for this trial. Six to eight rootstocks with two cultivars will be included. Lang will coordinate this trial.
2005 Sweet Cherry – Lang reported that efforts are beginning regarding the establishment of a new trial of sweet cherry. Kappel will coordinate this trial.
2006 Apple – Robinson reported that efforts have begun regarding the assembly of a 2006 planting. He also expressed concerns about current interpretation of plant patent laws. If this interpretation persists, this planting may not occur. Robinson suggested that NC-140 should make political contacts to express our concerns.
Motion: A motion was made by Terence Robinson and seconded by Dave Ferree to direct the chair to write a letter to appropriate government representatives to encourage reinterpretation of the plant patent laws to allow appropriate testing and presentation of information as are done by NC-140. The letter will be sent to Congressional representatives of the major apple-growing states, regional directors, and the US Patent Office. It also will be made available for grower groups to send as well. The motion passed unanimously.
Size control in peach
Ted DeJong discussed his work with the mechanism of size control in peach rootstocks. They found that the dwarfing rootstock had a greater resistance to water movement through the root than did the more vigorous rootstock.
Tree quality at planting
Scott Johnson suggested that we keep some trials for demonstration purposes only and others for data collection. Excessive tree variation may compromise the quality of data. Much discussion ensued regarding the suitability of the data for scientific presentation. It was decided that this question must be answered by each planting committee. In some cases, it is of primary importance to look at the very newest rootstocks, even if initial tree size is small. Therefore, data collected for some of these rootstocks must be considered preliminary. Promising rootstocks may need to be included in later trials when better trees may be available.
Win Cowgill reported on developments of the NC-140 website in the last year. Links to NCRA and CSREES were added. Meeting minutes and a membership database were included. Upload facilities for annual reports, planting coordination, and project proposal development. The site had an average of 2,100 hits per month. Overall, the website includes technical support for cooperators, page construction, examples, email listserve, server space, and a domain name. Poster presentations detailing results from NC-140 trials presented at other meetings have been included as information content on the NC-140 web page. Win reported that five-year reports and final planting papers will be available on the website. Search capabilities will be added. The home page will be redesigned, and cooperator links will be added. Content and graphics are needed for future development. Website cost is approximately $2,000 per year. UCDavis will fund this cost in 2001-02.
Motion: Planting coordinators have the authority to submit information to the web committee for inclusion on the NC-140 website. Motion was made by Ted DeJong and seconded by Ron Perry. The motion passed unanimously.
Motion: Protocols for NC-140 trials will be made available publicly on the website. Motion was made by Ron Perry and seconded by Bob Belding. George Greene moved to amend the motion to include rootstocks within the trial. The motion to amend was seconded by Cheryl Hampson. The motion to amend failed. The original motion failed.
California. The 1999 Fuji apple rootstock planting was continued for its third season in 2001. So far, only one tree has died (Supporter 1) and fire blight was only a minor problem this year (compared to 2000 when 40% of the central leaders were lost to fire blight). All trees flowered well, so there was substantial production. In the dwarf planting, CG.5935 was the most productive rootstock. In the semidwarf planting, G.30 produced well with 3 to 4 times greater yield than the standard M7 rootstock. The 2001 Red Top peach rootstock planting was established at the Kearney Ag Center. By the end of the season, tree growth across the field was obviously quite variable. Some of the trees were small and weak, but only one tree has died.
Illinois. University of Illinois has two apple plantings: the 1994 Dwarf Apple and the 1994 Semidwarf Apple. Overall in 2001, tree survival and growth of both plantings were excellent. For the dwarf planting yield, in terms of total fruit number and weight per tree, was very good with trees on 11 of the 16 rootstocks averaging more than 300 fruits per tree. Yield efficiency was highest on B.491 and least on V.1. Tree vigor was variable, with V.1 producing the most vigorous trees and M.27 EMLA the least vigorous. Root suckering was also variable, ranging 2.2 to 49.5 suckers per tree. In the semi-dwarf rootstock trial, only 5 of the 10 Gala trees on G.30 are still alive due to incompatibility. However, trees on G.30 continued to produce more fruits than the other rootstocks. Yield efficiency, tree vigor, and root suckering were statistically similar among all four rootstocks.
Iowa. Trees on CG.156 rootstock exhibited decline symptoms following exposure to -6.1oC on 8 Oct. 2000. In the evaluation of three cultivars on all combinations of three interstems (M.9, M.26, Mark) on three rootstocks (MM.106, MM.111, Ant.313) grown at two planting depths, tree mortality following several freezing events was influenced by planting depth. Following late fall/early winter freezes, mortality was confined to trees planted with the interstem/rootstock graft union exposed, while 82% of the trees killed following a Feb. 1996 freeze were planted with the interstem/rootstock graft union buried. The percentage of blackheart injury in the trunks was greatest when the interstem/rootstock graft union was exposed. Trees with an M.9 interstem exhibited the greatest blackheart injury. Rootstock had no effect on blackheart injury in the interstem portion of the trees.
Kentucky. All of the NC-140 trials in Kentucky are located at the University of Kentucky Research and Education Center in Princeton, KY. One is the 1994 Semi-dwarf Apple planting. Trees on G.30 and V.2 have been the most productive ones in this planting. Kentucky also has the 1999 Dwarf and Semi-dwarf Apple plantings, and the 1994 Peach trial. All trees in the 1999 plantings, are alive except for three that never leafed out after planting (one each on the dwarf rootstocks G.16T, G.16N, and CG.3041). Twenty-two of the thirty-one trees in the Semi-dwarf planting have a lean in excess of 30E from vertical, and are now supported by tree stakes. In the 1994 Peach trial, trees on GF 305, and BY 520-9, had the highest yield this year. Trees with the highest cumulative yields are on GF305, Lovell, and BY 520-9. There were no significant differences among the rootstocks in date of bloom for 2001.
Maine. The winter was warmer than normal, but snowfall was very heavy all winter. This led to tree damage in spring since snow crusting broke off lower limbs on some dwarf trees in all plantings. Semidwarf trees were not affected. The growing season of 2001 was very wet in early summer, but became hot and dry in the latter part of the summer. This did not seem to affect fruit size even though our plots were not irrigated. Crop load and preharvest fruit drop of Gala were heavier than normal. In 2000 in the 1994 Apple trial, M.26 EMLA was the largest tree in the dwarf plot. All other rootstocks were significantly smaller. Intermediate in size to M.26 EMLA and M9 EMLA were V.1, M.9 RN29, M.9 Pajam2, B.9, and Mark. Rootstocks with a similar size to M.9 EMLA were O.3, M.9 Pajam1, P.2 and M.9 NAKBT337. Rootstocks that were smaller included B.469, P.16, B.491, M.27 EMLA, and P.22. Fruit size, yield, and yield efficiency also varied with rootstock. In the Semidwarf plot, P.1 produced the largest tree, M.26 the smallest, with G.30 and V.2 being intermediate. Fruit size, yield, and yield efficiency did not vary with rootstock in the Semidwarf trial in 2000. All required data was collected in 2001, but has not yet been analyzed.
Massachusetts. In the 1994 Apple trial in 2001, largest trees were on V.1 and M.26EMLA, and the smallest trees were on P.22, M.27EMLA, B.491, and P.16. Cumulatively (1996-2001), the most efficient trees were on M.27EMLA and the least efficient were on M.26EMLA. In the 1994 Peach trial in 2001, trees on Guardian and Lovell were the largest, and those on TaTao5/Lovell, H7338019, Rubira, and Ishtara were the smallest. Cumulatively (1996-2001), trees on Ishtara were the most yield efficient, and those on Guardian, Montclar, Higama, and TaTao5/Lovell were the least yield efficient. In the 1999 Dwarf Apple trial in 2001, largest trees were on CG.4013, CG.5202, CG.5179, and Sup.3, and the smallest were on M.9T337, G.16N, and M.26EMLA. In the 1999 Semidwarf Apple trial in 2001, largest trees were on G.30N, M.7EMLA, and Sup.4, and the smallest were on M.26EMLA, CG.7707, and CG.4814. In 1995, a trial was established including McIntosh, Cortland, Macoun, and Pioneer Mac on 12 rootstocks. In 2001, the largest trees were on Mark and V.1, and the smallest were on P.16, P.22, and B.491. Cumulatively, the most yield efficient trees were on P.16, and the least efficient were on V.1 and Mark. In 1995, a trial was established including Ginger Gold on 10 rootstocks. At the end of the 2001 growing season, trees on Mark were the largest and those on B.469, P.22, B.491, P.16, and V.3 were the smallest. Cumulatively (1997-2001), trees on P.16 were the most efficient, and those on V.3 were the least efficient. In 1996, a trial was established including McIntosh on six rootstocks. In 2001, trees on V.4 were the largest. Cumulatively (1998-2001), trees on V.3 were the most yield efficient, and those on V.4 were the least efficient.
Minnesota. Liberty did not perform well in Minnesota on any of six rootstocks in a 1993 trial. Fruit size was small, regardless of crop load, yields were inconsistent and generally low. However, the difference between the two M.9 clones was of interest. M.9L was larger and more fruitful than M.9A, with greater yield efficiency and greater survival, over the nine years of this planting. This planting will be removed. This was the first bearing year for both the 1999 Dwarf Apple and 1999 Semidwarf Apple plantings, with nearly all trees producing fruit. Trees on M.7 EMLA were the least precocious, with few flower clusters and no fruit. Trees on M.26 EMLA also bore very little compared to other trees in the planting. In general, survival and growth in these plantings has been good, though trees on Supporter 4 and M.9 NAKBT337 have had significant mortality.
North Carolina. North Carolina has five of the NC-140 cooperative plantings. The trials that are currently under investigation in North Carolina are the 1994 Dwarf and Semidwarf Apple trials, the 1998 Apple planting, and both the 1999 Dwarf and Semidwarf Apple plantings. In the 1994 Semidwarf planting trees on G.30 had the greatest yield and yield efficiency. In the 1999 Dwarf trial, V.1 had the largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) which was larger than those in the Semidwarf planting. O.3 and V.1 were the most productive, however, V.3 was the most efficient. In the 1998 Apple planting the TCA of G.16 is approximately 35-40% larger than that of the two M.9 selections which were similar in TCA. Fuji trees in both the 1999 Dwarf and Semidwarf Apple trials grew well in 2001 and were allowed to crop. In the Dwarf planting, the trees on G.16T and CG.4013 had the greatest TCA and trees on M.9 NAKBT337 the smallest. The trees on CG.4013 had the greatest yield. In the Semi-dwarf planting, the trees on G.30, N and T, had the greatest TCA, significantly larger than trees on M.26 EMLA. Trees on G.30N had a significantly greater yield than trees on CG.6210, CG.7707, M.26 EMLA, or M.7 EMLA. Cultural practices and data collection will continue in 2002 according to the NC-140 Committee recommendations.
Ohio. The severe fire blight epidemic in 2000 resulted is significant tree loss on the various clones of M.9. Even though the scion was severely infected tree loss on CG.41 and G.16 was minimal. Trees on M.26EMLA and MM.106EMLA were more affected by soil compaction than trees on M.9 EMLA, G.16, or G.30.
Pennsylvania. Near Univ. Park, in the 1993 CG semidwarf trial with Liberty, the largest trees are on M.7EMLA and the smallest are on CG.222. In the 1994 dwarf trial, trees on V.1 are the largest and those on M.27 are the smallest. Yield efficiency is greatest for trees on M.9 NAKB T337. At Biglerville, in the 1993 CG dwarf apple trial, the smallest trees are on M.9 EMLA and CG.3902, while the largest trees are on CG.5008 followed by CG.3029 and 5179. CG.3041 has the highest cumulative yield efficiency (CYE) and other rootstocks with fairly high CYEs are M.9 EMLA, M.26, and CG.4247. In the 1993 CG semi-dwarf apple trial, the largest trees are on CG.4013 but slightly smaller trees are on CG.103 and CG.6210. Much smaller trees are produced by CG.5202 and CG.222. CG.5202 has the highest CYE followed closely by CG.222. In the 1994 NC-140 Dwarf Apple trial, trees on M.27 EMLA are the smallest closely followed by P.22 and the biggest are on V.1. Trees on P.16 have the highest CYE (2.76) followed by B.9 and 5 others while V.1 has the lowest (1.56) but not different from M.9 EMLA, M.26 EMLA, M.9 Pajam 2, M.9 NAKBT337, and 5 others. In the 1993 peach seedling trial, the largest trees are on Boone County from Clemson followed by Stark Redleaf, while the smallest trees are on Chui Lum Tao from WOFTA. Trees on Tzim Pee Tao have the highest CYE followed by Siberian C and Chui Lum Tao and 9 others, while trees on Nemaguard from the IR program have the lowest CYE followed by Bailey from WOFTA, Boone County, and Tenn. Natural.
South Carolina. After 8 years, tree survival in the 1994 peach rootstock trial remained high and essentially unchanged since year one. Trees bloomed earliest on Tennessee Natural and latest on Ta Tao 5 interstems over a 6-year period. Cumulative fruit yields were highest with S.2729, Myran, and H7338019, and were lowest with Ishtara. However, no rootstock has yet demonstrated consistent superior performance. For the 2001 peach rootstock trial, tree survival was good, except with Pumiselect. All but one tree on Pumiselect was snapped by wind at or below the graft union during the summer. SC-17 and SLAP were the most vigorous, and Jaspi, VVA-1, and K146-43 were the least vigorous rootstocks. In the 1994 apple rootstock trials, fruit yields in the dwarf planting were highest on M.9 clones, M.26 EMLA, O.3, and V.1, and were significantly lower with M.27 EMLA, B.9, B.491, P.16, and MARK. Cumulative fruit yield (1996-2001) was greatest with M.26 EMLA, M.9 RN29, M.9 Pajam 1, M.9 Pajam 2, O.3, and V.1. Suckering was greatest with M.9 Pajam 1 and M.9 Pajam 2. In the semi-dwarf trial, P.1 and M.26 EMLA were the most vigorous, but V.2 and G.30 were similar in size. Cumulative yield and fruit size were alike among semi-dwarfing stocks, but G.30 and M.26 EMLA suckered much less than P.1 and V.2. From the 1999 'Nagafu 6' Fuji apple rootstock trial, trees on 16N were the most vigorous and were similar in size to the three semi-dwarfing stocks. Trees on M.9T337 produced the lowest fruit yield, but had similar yield efficiency to all but CG.179. In the 1998 cherry rootstock trial for sweet cherries, many trees were lost to bacterial canker. Only Hedelfingen on GI 148-8 has 100% survival after 4 years. Trees on GI 209-1 had the highest mortality and were the least vigorous. Mazzard, Weiroot 10, and GI 148-1 were the most vigorous. All trees produced fruit in 2001 except those on Mahaleb. GI 148-1 had the highest fruit yield, and GI 209-1 had the smallest fruit.
South Dakota. The Liberty/CG (CG.13, CG.30, CG.202, CG.210, CG.222, M.7A, M.7) semi-dwarf rootstock planting was established in 1993 at the N.E. Hansen Research Center, in Brookings, SD. Two NC-140 objectives are addressed with this planting: winter hardiness of the scion cultivar and rootstocks and size control and precocity of the rootstocks. Temperatures in the winter 2000 to 2001 did not fluctuate widely. It was a long winter. South Dakota had the longest continuous snow cover and the wettest April on record (1893-2001). A minimum temperature of -29oC occurred in February. The summer was very hot, with July and August averaging 28oC. No tree death has occurred in response to winter temperatures since 1995-1996. There are no differences among rootstocks for tree height or spread. Trunk cross sectional area of CG.13 and CG.210 are similar to M.7A and M.7, however CG.202, CG.30, and CG.222 are significantly smaller. CG.30 had significantly more suckers than the other rootstocks. It was not possible to determine yield or yield efficiency as a localized hail storm destroyed many spurs in May 2000 and there was no bloom this year. The trees have developed flower buds this season.
Utah. Winter injury following the year of establishing the 1998 sweet cherry rootstock trial is still causing tree death. 50% or more of Bing sweet cherries on seven different rootstocks have died as a result of winter injury that first winter in Utah; only three tart cherry trees on the same rootstocks have died. In the 2001 peach rootstock trial, seven of eight trees on Hiawatha rootstock and 6 of 8 trees on Pumiselect flattened by microburst winds during thunderstorms in June & July; only one tree on other rootstocks was killed at the Utah site.
Vermont. Tree maintenance and data collection for the 1999 planting of the NC-140 Cornell/Geneva Apple Rootstock Evaluation continues at the University of Vermont Horticultural Research Center in So. Burlington, VT. The trees were trained, pruned and maintained according to protocol developed by the Principal Leaders. This was the first year fruit data were collected for this planting, but because of the drought stress, the yield and drop data collected this year may be of limited value. Cultural practices and data collection will continue under the direction of the Principal Leaders. No major changes in direction are anticipated. All collected data will be sent to the Principal Leaders for incorporation into their Annual Report.
Virginia. Tree survival is very good in the 1994 Dwarf rootstock planting and Mark is the only rootstock with less than 80% survival. The largest trees are on M.26 and V.1 and the smallest trees are on P.22, P.16, M.27, and B.491. There is a large range in vigor among the M.9 clones: RN29, Pajam 1 and Pajam 2 are the largest, and Fleuren 56 is the smallest. Fruit set was heavy and trees required hand thinning. Based on results from this trial, we are continuing to recommend M.9 T337 as the preferred dwarfing rootstock. The 1994 Semidwarf planting is in a biennial cropping pattern and this was the on year, so yields were very high and averaged 160 to 184 kg/tree. G.30 is slightly smaller and has higher yield efficiency and crop density than the other three rootstocks. Although G.30 has good cropping attributes, we have lost 70% of the trees, so it can not be recommended until we have more information about breakage at the bud union with other cultivars. V.2 seems very similar to M.26, except survival has been better. Based on our observations, V.2 deserves further evaluation.
Washington. In the 1993 trial of Fuji with 24 dwarfing apple rootstocks, including 12 clones of M.9, trees on the M.9 clones showed severe Southwest trunk injury and high tree mortality in comparison with all other rootstocks. In the 1994 Gala dwarf rootstock trial, B.9, V.3 and six M.9 clones performed well. In the 1994 Gala semi-dwarf trial, G.30 had similar yield efficiency as M.26 but was a 25% larger tree. Results of young trials of CG rootstocks are preliminary.
British Columbia. In the 1994 Dwarf Apple trial, among the M.9 subclones, Pajam 2 and RN 29 are slightly larger than the standard M.9 EMLA in TCA and CY, but are no more yield efficient. Trees on P.2, O.3, and B.9 fall between M.9 EMLA and M.26 EMLA in vigor control, CY, and CYE. Mark was formerly in this group but is falling behind in rank, with TCA now similar to M.9, and it has smaller fruit. B.469 is similar to M.9 EMLA in all aspects of performance at this site [but this is not true at other sites]. Trees on V.1 are not dwarf; V.1 resembles rootstocks in the semidwarf category in TCA. In the 1994 Semidwarf Apple trial, TCA of trees on G.30 is 76% greater than those on M.26 EMLA, and G.30 does not fall into the semidwarf category of vigor control. P.1 and V.2 produce trees similar in size to M.26 EMLA, but P.1 has slightly lower CYE. In the 1998 Apple trial, the TCA of trees on G.16 is now 74% greater than on M.9 EMLA on average, with similar average fruit weight and CYE. G.16 does not appear to be similar in vigor control to M.9.
New Brunswick. The 2001 apple growing season was hot and dry as both temperature and precipitation were well above and below normal, respectively. In both the 1994 Gala dwarf and semi-dwarf plantings, no major differences between other years were found. In the dwarf planting, the M.9 RN29 and both M.9 Pajam rootstocks continue to grow and yield high quality fruit. Although Mark and O.3 also yield well, fruit size is limited. In the semi-dwarf planting, G.30 continues to be the best rootstock of the pack. Cold hardiness testing of the Cornell Geneva and other new promising rootstocks continue and a new factsheet identifying tree and fruit characteristics has been placed on the internet at: http://res2.agr.ca/kentville/pubs/factsheet/2001/fact01-01/apple rootstock.
Nova Scotia. The plantings at Kentville are growing well. The mini dwarf rootstock planting of 1998 is cropping heavily now and differences while preliminary will be descernable soon. The 1999 planting with McIntosh as the cultivar has just begun to crop. I expect differences in performance will be evident in the near future.
Motion: A motion was made by Ron Perry and seconded by Dave Ferree to have the secretary write a letter to Dr. Johnson’s administrators reflecting his excellent leadership of NC-140 and his hosting of an extremely useful and productive meeting. The motion passed unanimously.
Meeting adjourned November 12, 2:05 PM.
W.R. Autio J.I. Gray
2001 Secretary, NC-140 Administrative Advisor, NC-140
Attendance, 2001 Annual Meeting, NC-140:
S. Johnson, University of California
T. DeJong, University of California
R. Godin, Colorado State University
K. Taylor, University of Georgia
M. Kushad, University of Illinois
P. Hirst, Purdue University
P. Domoto, Iowa State University
D. Wolfe, University of Kentucky
R. Moran, University of Maine
C. Walsh, University of Maryland
W. Autio, University of Massachusetts
J. Clements, University of Massachusetts
R. Perry, Michigan State University
G. Lang, Michigan State University
J.I. Gray, Michigan State University
J. MacKenzie, University of Minnesota
W. Cowgill, Rutgers University
R. Belding, Rutgers University
T. Robinson, Cornell University
R. Andersen, Cornell University
M. Parker, North Carolina State University
D. Ferree, Ohio State University
E. Mielke, Oregon State University
R. Crassweller, Pennsylvania State University
G. Greene, Pennsylvania State University
G. Reighard, Clemson University
J.L. Anderson, Utah State University
T. Lindstrom, Utah State University
R. Marini, Virginia Polytech. Inst.& State Univ.
M.E. Garcia, University of Vermont
B. Barritt, Washington State University
T Roper, University of Wisconsin
K. Kosola, University of Wisconsin
C. Hampson, Agric./Agrifood Canada, BC
J.-P. Privé, Agric./Agrifood Canada, NB
C. Embree, Agric./Agrifood Canada, NS
J. Cline, University of Guelph