Winfred P. Cowgill, Jr.
Department of Agricultural and Resource Management Agents
Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Hunterdon County
4 Gauntt Place
Flemington, NJ 08822
Robert Belding, Assistant Professor
Department of Plant Science and Extension Specialists
Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center
121 Norhtville Road
Bridgeton, NJ 08302-9499
Ed Durner, Associate Professor
Department of Plant Science
Cook College, Rutgers The State University of NJ
New Brunswick, NJ 08903
Martha Maletta, Research Associate William Tietjen, Asssociate Professor
Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Hunterdon County RCE of Warren County
4 Gauntt Place RT 519
Flemington, NJ 08822 Belvidere, NJ
Plant and Soil Science Technician
Rutgers Snyder Extension and Research Farm
140 Locust Grove Road
Pittstown, NJ 08867
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station
USDA- Supported by Allotments of the Regional Research Fund, Hatch, Act. As Amended August 11, 1955
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Hunterdon County Board of Chosen Freeholders
1997 Progress of Work and Principle Accomplishments
The 1994 Apple plantings are established at the Rutgers Snyder Research and Extension Farm, Pittstown, NJ. The 1994 peach trail is located at both the Rutgers Snyder Research and Extension Farm and the Rutgers Cream Ridge Station. The Cream Ridge Data was received too late to be included in this report. A New Jersey Cherry Rootstock/cultivar trail was established at the Snyder Farm in 1996 an apricot rootstock trail was established at the Snyder Farm in 1994
A World Wide Web home page for the NC-140 project at
<http http://orchard.uvm.edu/nc140/default.html> was established on the 'Virtual Orchard' WWW site <http://orchard.uvm.edu/> in collaboration with Jon Clements of the University of Vermont.
The goal is to facilitate communication among project members and to disseminate information about apple and peach rootstocks and planting systems to interested growers; researchers; industry, extension, government personnel; and the general public
Apple 1994 Plantings
In 1997, any blank leaders were notched to promote bud break. Over 80% broke, producing excellent fruiting shoots. We are very pleased with this practice. A heavy bloom occurred
Leaders were left unheaded but trained to the poles with a tapener. Minimal dormant pruning was done to correct structural defects. Leaders were singled out in April and again in June. A few selective pruning cuts of 'nuisance' branches were done at the same time. Bending and tying down of scaffold branches was also performed as necessary in June to maintain desirable tree structure. Summer pruning of vigorous watersprouts was done this year at the end of July.
The blocks were maintained following New Jerseys IPM spray schedule utilizing weekly scouting, phermone traps, on-site weather and Skybit predictions. There were no unusual pest and disease problems observed. Foliar nutrients: zinc, Epsom salts, manganese, urea, calcium and boron were applied as per 1996 foliar and soil test results.
Chemical thinning was done at 8-10 mm average fruit diameter with 30gm(ai) Accel + 1 qt Sevin/A. A cool, wet, and overcast spring with an extended bloom made poor pollination conditions. Excessive thinning with the Accel/Sevin combination may have occurred.
Irrigation only used three times during the year. Once in June and twice in July, with an avg. of 0.75" acre inches per application.
All data has been collected for 1997. Leaf and soil samples were collected for analysis. Data will be forwarded to the project statistician for analysis.
Yield data indicates a wide range of precocity and resulting production as influenced by rootstock.
Mark- had the highest yield but the fruit was small. The Mark trees were not overcropped.
P22 and M27 - Were the weakest stocks as measured by vigor and TSCA. It is hard to keep the leader growing. The scaffold limbs want to overgrow leader.
CG 30 - Looks outstanding from the aspects of tree growth habit, ease of training, very little pruning needed, and total yield. But we are seeing the possibility of incompatibility with Gala, four of ten trees have snapped off at the graft union
P1- Vigorous stock that likes to sucker. It has not settled down and is extremely vigorous, just slightly smaller in TSCA than M26. It has little bud set for 1998 as compared to the other stocks.
V2 - Was inadvertently left out of the enclosed statistical analysis. It was our highest yielded. The tree form is good with good vigor.
1994 NC 140 Semi-dwarf Apple
*Means separation by Fisher's Protected LSD, 5% level
1994 NC -140 Dwarf Apple
1994 Peach Trial- Rutgers Snyder Extension and Research Farm
Two plantings were established in 1994, one at the Rutgers Snyder Research and Extension Farm in North Jersey and the second larger planting at the Cream Ridge Fruit Station by Dr. Durner.
Trees were maintained according to the NJ IPM spray schedule with weekly scouting. Treated with foliar nutrients of nitrogen, boron, and zinc.
Irrigation began on 5-21 with weekly applications of 1 acre inch through harvest on August 8, 1997. Trees were summer pruning 3 weeks prior to harvest.
Montclair - Trees appear to be weaker. The rootstock seems to induce steep crotch angles. But even well crotched scaffolds were splitting.
520-9 - Trees produce small fruit, less than 2 inches. The trees were adequately thinned and not over-cropped. It produced fruit that was too small to make marketable fruit size
Over all the block fruited well this year, with an average of 3 bushels per tree. 78% of the fruit was perfect (2.5" or larger and blemish free), and stored in regular cold storage at a temp. of 34 F for 3 weeks with no breakdown occurrence.
Only one tree in the block (on Higama) received significant bud damage due to the cold night (22 F) during early bloom (20%). Everything else in the block had an avg. of 2% bud kill due to that night.
1994 NC 140 Peach Snyder Farm
* Means separation by Fisher's Protected LSD, 5% level
1996 New Jersey Cherry Rootstock Trial, Snder Farm
PUBLICATIONS ISSUED OR MANUSCRIPTS APPROVED DURING THE YEAR:
Tietjen, W.H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. "European Fruit Trends/International Dwarf Fruit Tree Association Summer Tour." Proceedings of the 137th Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Fruit News, State Horticulture. Assoc. of PA. 76(4)77.
Tietjen, W.H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. "Integrated Fruit Production in Europe." Horticultural New, NJ State Horticulture. Soc. 76(1)3-6..
VanVranken, R.W., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. "Utilizing Electronic Mail List Discussion Groups on the Internet to Enhance Communication in Specific Commodity Groups." HortTechnology, Vol6(4) 318-324.